The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. The principals of the scientific method can be applied in many areas, including scientific research, business and technology.

 The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. 

Steps of the scientific method

The scientific method uses a series of steps to establish facts or create knowledge. The overall process is well established, but the specifics of each step may change depending on what is being examined and who is performing it. The scientific method can only answer questions that can be proven or disproven through testing.


Make an observation or ask a question

The first step is to observe something that you would like to learn about or ask a question that you would like answered. These can be specific or general. Some examples would be "I observe that it seems as if some people are able to predict the future" or "How can we improve the quality of evidence given in evidential contacts " Taking the time to establish a well-defined question will help you in later steps.


Gather background information 

This involves doing research into what is already known about the topic. This can also involve finding if anyone has already asked the same question.


Create a hypothesis

A hypothesis is an explanation for the observation or question. If proven later, it can become a fact. Some examples would be "Precognition is possible and something at least some people have" or "The energy of the congregation affects the quality of mediumship”.


Create a prediction and perform a test

 Create a testable prediction based on the hypothesis. The test should establish a noticeable change that can be measured or observed. It is also important to control for other variables during the test. Some examples would be "If we set up tests where no information is available of the future outcome can the test persons still make accurate predictions" or "If we set up many experiments with congregations of different sizes and energy and evaluate the quality of mediumship in each situation."


Analyze the results and draw a conclusion

Use the metrics (measurements) established before the test see if the results match the prediction. For example, "We only get 1% improvement over chance in the predictions; this is not enough of a change to be validate the theory" or "When sizes and energies of congregations are compared with the quality of mediumship a clear relation can be seen”.


Share the conclusion or decide what question to ask next:

Document the results of your experiment. By sharing the results with others, you also increase the total body of knowledge available. Your experiment may have also led to other questions, or if your hypothesis is disproved you may need to create a new one and test that. For example, "Because the prediction results from the individuals tested are not significant, we should try to repeat the experiments with mediums/healers”.


[1] Scientific studies can also be of an exploratory nature for investigation of a problem that is not clearly defined, has been under-investigated, or is otherwise poorly understood.