The Creed of the Spirits

The Creed of the Spirits

Principles of Emma Hardinge Britten By Paul J. Gaunt

For some decades there has been confusion about Emma Hardinge Britten’s principles, which today form the basis of the religion and religious philosophy of the Spiritualists’ National Union. It was assumed that the concepts and original wording of the Seven Principles came through Emma’s mediumship, as she was inspired in 1871, by the communicating spirit of Robert Owen, to summarise the philosophy of Spiritualism.

Throughout Emma’s life she had generally claimed that her creeds/principles were evolved through Spiritualism and given through her mediumship by the spirits. Up until around 1887 these principles would vary in description and numbers.

This booklet is simply to give the key points from original materials about the development of her principles.